|Tobacco Stunt Nematode||Classification||Hosts|
|Morphology and Anatomy||Life Cycle|
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Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Steiner, 1937
[Ref: CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 39 (1974)]
Eastern U.S.; also found in Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, and Japan.
In the southeast US, azaleas are susceptible to damage by T. claytoni. Leaves turn yellow and plants are stunted and gradually die. They fail to respond to fertilizer and water.
Ectoparasite on epidermal cells between root hairs in zone of elongation.
Turf, potato, tobacco, corn, wheat, oats, azaleas, trees in tree nurseries.
In addition to hosts listed, Krusberg [Phytopath. 46:18 abstr. (1956)] showed that Sudan grass and Irish potato (4400 to 6400 nemas per pot) were good hosts.
Poor hosts included Crotalaria spectabilis, peanut, pepper, cucumber, and mustard (15 to 90 nemas per pot).
For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility, copy the name
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About 39 days at 24 C. Males are common and are necessary for reproduction. Maximum reproduction rates occur at 90 degrees F (highest temperature studied); range is from 65 to 90 degrees F. From 1 to 15 eggs per day are laid 8 to 10 days after the last molt. The first molt occurs inside the egg.
The sexes can be recognized in the third juvenile stage by the gonad primordium.
Nematode can survive at least 10 months in the absence of a host.
Causes damage to young corn in North Carolina [Nelson, 1956], but older plants can tolerate larger populations; lines were selected which were resistant to T. claytoni. Evidence from pot culture indicates changes in size and shape of nuclei in corn roots.
In the 1950s, Graham reported 67% of 175 collections in tobacco fields in South Carolina were infested and plants stunted. Pathogenicity tests positive on tobacco roots stunted; no lesions. Results were confirmed in pot tests, but researchers used small pots which may have caused additional plant stress [Phytopath. 46: 12-13 (1954)].
Mountain [Can. J. Bot. 32:737-759 (1954)] in Canada observed T. claytoni attacking wheat and oats, but not tobacco.
In Wisconsin and California, this species was found to injure azaleas [Sher, PDR].
|Slash pine seedlings stunted by T. claytoni (on left), healthy seedling on right.|
|From Hodges, (1962)|
Nematicides are effective; ethylene dibromide (EDB) was better than D-D mixture for control.
DBCP, 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), and Aldicarb have also been used for control.
For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name
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CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 39 (1974)
Hodges, C.S. 1962. Diseases in southeastern forest nurseries and their control. Station Paper 142./