Rev 12/27/2013

lance nematodes Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle

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Economic Importance Damage
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           Hoplolaimus (von Daday, 1905)
      Nemonchus (Cobb, 1913)
      Hoplolaimoides (Shakil, 1973)
      Basirolaimus (Shamsi, 1979)

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Morphology and Anatomy:

Photograph by John Eisenback, NemaPix.

Generally large, 1.0 to 1.5 mm long, body straight.  

Lip region offset from body, wide, anteriorly flattened, with clearly marked annules, and with longitudinal striae

Photograph by John Eisenback, NemaPix.

Lateral field with four lines or less, generally areolated at level of phasmids and anteriorly, sometimes with striae irregularly scattered over entire field, rarely not areolated.

Labial framework and stylet massive; stylet knobs anchor or tulip-shaped. 

DEGO 3 to 10 m from stylet base.

Esophageal glands overlap intestine dorsally and laterally; sometimes gland nuclei duplicated to a total of 6 nuclei; intestine symmetrically arranged between the subventral glands. 

Female:  Two genital branches outstretched, equally developed.  

Tail short, rounded.

Phasmids enlarged to scutella; erratically situated on body, anteriorly to anus level, and sometimes anterior to vulva level, not opposite each other. 

Male: Caudal alae enveloping tail, regular.  

Secondary sexual dimorphism visible in labial region

Esophageal structures smaller in males.

[Ref: Raski and Luc (1987)

H. Ferris.]

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Economic Importance:


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Nematode feeds at some distance from root tip; may have head in root or may invade root completely; therefore, the term 'ectoparasite' is a misnomer - nematode often feeds endoparasitically.  

Feeding may cause spongy brown cortical areas or cortex to slough off.

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For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility to this genus, copy the genus name


select Nemabase Genus Search and paste the name in the Genus box

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Life Cycle:



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Ref: Raski and Luc, Rev. Nematol. 10(4):409-444 (1987)

H. Ferris


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Copyright 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 27, 2013.