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The Battle Hymn of the Spiral Nematodes
Lyrics: Kathy Merrifield
Vocals: Pointless Sisters
Synonyms: Rotylenchoides (Whitehead, 1958) Zimmermannia (Shamsi, 1973)
photo by Howard Ferris
|Female: Body vermiform,
spiral (when relaxed) to straight.
Labial region continuous to slightly offset, rounded or anteriorly flattened, generally annulated, but never longitudinally striated; anterior lip annule generally not divided into sectors, with elongate amphid apertures (SEM). Rarely faint or marked lip sectors are present.
Lateral field with four lines.
Tail 1 to 2.5 body diameters long, typically more curved dorsally, with or without a terminal ventral process, sometimes rounded.
Stylet and labial framework average sized.
Dorsal esophageal gland opening (DEGO) from 6 to 16 µm from stylet base.
Median bulb rounded with average-sized valve.
Glands overlap intestine dorsally and ventrally, all three glands of about the same length.
Photograph from Ana Child, NREL, Colorado State
Male: Slight secondary sexual dimorphism seen in smaller anterior end.
Caudal alae enveloping tail end.
Fortuner, et al.(1987), and H. Ferris.
D-rated pests in California.
Ectoparasites and endoparasites in root cortex.
Fortuner, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):219-232 (1987)