Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

 

Contents

 

Rev 12/27/2013

Chrysanthemum Foliar Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Aphelenchoides Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Aphelenchoididae Menu Feeding  References
         

 


 

Classification:

       Tylenchida
       Aphelenchina
         Aphelenchoidea
          Aphelenchoididae
           Aphelenchoidinae
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Steiner and Buhrer, 1932

Synonyms:

Aphelenchus ritzemabosi Schwartz, 1911
Pathoaphelenchus ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911), Steiner, 1932
Aphelenchoides (Chitinoaphelenchus) ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Fuchs, 1937
Pseudaphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Drozdovski, 1967
Tylenchus ribes Taylor, 1917
Aphelenchus ribes (Taylor, 1917) Goodey, 1932
Aphelenchoides ribes (Taylor, 1917) Goodey, 1933
Aphelenchus phyllophagus Stewart, 1921
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Morphology and Anatomy:

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi is 0.77-1.2mm long.

Males are common.

 

 
Esophageal glands in a long lobe which overlaps the intestine on the dorsal side.
DEGO in large metacorpus.
C,E=female tail with mucro; D,I=male tail with mucro; G,I=male spicules; H=lateral field  
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Distribution:

United States, Europe, Soviet Union, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia.

Neotype locality is Redwood City, California; original type locality unknown.

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Economic Importance:

C-rated pests in California.

 

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Feeding:

Endoparasite in leaf mesophyll or ectoparasite on buds. 

Nematode moves in moisture films and enters stomata.

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Hosts:

Chrysanthemum, strawberry and many others. The following are listed in various literature sources:

Achillea filipendulina Lam.      Fern Leaf Yarrow Cirsium arvense Scop.      Canada Thistle Penstemon gentianoides      
Aconitum napellus L.      Helmet Flower Clematis alpina Mill.      Virgin's Bower Penstemon hirsutus      
Adenostyles alpina       Clematis tangutica Korsh.      Virgin's Bower Penstemon laevigatus      
Aegopodium podagraria L.      Goutweed Clematis vitalba L.      Virgin's Bower Peperomia caperata       Radiator Plant
Ageratum houstonianum Mill.      Ageratum Cochlearia officinalis L.      Scurvy Grass Peperomia glabella       Radiator Plant
Ageratum mexicanum Sims.      Floss Flower Colchicum sp. L.      Peperomia griseoargentea       Radiator Plant
Allium sativum L.      Garlic Coleus sp. Lour.      Flame Nettle Peperomia sp. Ruiz. & Oav.      Radiator Plant
Althyrium sp.       Coleus X hybridus Voss.      Coleus Peperomia sp. Ruiz. & Oav.      Radiator Plant
Anacyclus pyrethrum       Convolvulus sp. L.      Bindweed Phaseolus vulgaris L.      Bean
Anemone coronaria L.      Poppy Anemone Cyclamen persicum Mill.      Florist's Cyclamen Phlox amoena      
Anemone sp. L.      Windflower Dahlia pinnata Cav.      Dahlia Phlox douglasii      Rose Queen
Anemone sylvestris L.      Windflower Dahlia sp.       Phlox douglasii      May Snow
Anthemis sp. L.      Dog Fennel Delphinium sp. L.      Larkspur Phlox douglasii      Lilac and Queen
Anthemis tinctoria L.      Golden Marquerite Diervilla sp. Adans.      Bush-Honeysuckle Phlox douglasii      Boothman's
Anthriscus sylvestris Hoffm.      Doronicum columnae Ten.      Leopard's Bane Phlox drummondii Hook.      Drummond Phlox
Antirrhinum majus L.      Common Snapdragon Doronicum cordatum Schultz-Bip.      Leopard's Bane Phlox paniculata      
Apium graveolens Pers.    dulce  Celery Doronicum cordatum ? Schultz-Bip.      Leopard's Bane Phlox subulata L.     Sampson Ground Pink Phlox
Aquilegia longissima A. Gray      Columbine Doronicum orientale Hoffm.      Leopard's Bane Phlox subulata L.     Sensation Ground Pink Phlox
Arabis aubrietioides Boiss.      Rock Cress Doronicum sp. L.      Leopard's Bane Phlox subulata L.     Lilacina Ground Pink Phlox
Asplenium nidus L.      Bird's Nest Fern Doronicum sp. L.      Leopard's Bane Phlox subulata L.     G.F. Wilson Ground Pink Phlox
Aster alpinus L.    altaicus  Michaelmas Daisy Echinacea purpurea Moench      Purple Cone Flower Phlox subulata L.     Fairy Ground Pink Phlox
Aster caucasicus Willd.      Michaelmas Daisy Elsholtzia ciliata Hyl.      Phlox subulata L.     Betty Ground Pink Phlox
Aster dumosus L.      Michaelmas Daisy Epilobium montanum L.      Fireweed Phlox subulata L.     Atropurpurea Ground Pink Phlox
Aster novi-belgii L.      Michaelmas Daisy Epipremnum aureum Bunt.      Pothos Phlox subulata L.     Temiscaming Ground Pink Phlox
Aster sp.      Michaelmas Daisy Aster Eremurus stenophyllus O. Fedtsch.    bungei  Pilea depressa Blume.     
Aster sp.      Garnet White Aster Erigeron glabellus Nutt.      Fleabane Plantago major L.      Common Plantain
Aster tradescantii L.      Michaelmas Daisy Erigeron uniflorus L.      Poa annua L.      Annual Blue Grass
Begonia sp.       Begonia Erigeron villarsii Bell      Podophyllum peltatum L.      Mayapple
Bellis perennis L.      English Daisy Forsythia suspensa Vahl      Golden-Bells Polypodiaceae sp.       Polypody Family
Bellis sp. L.      Daisy Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne      Strawberry Prenanthes alba      
Blechnum orientale L.      Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne      Strawberry Primula wanda       Primrose
Brunnera macrophylla I. M. Johnst.      Siberian Bugloss Fragaria sp. L.      Strawberry Primula X polyantha Hort.      Polyanthus
Buddleia davidii Franch.      Butterfly Bush Fragaria vesca L.      Strawberry Prunus cerasus L.      Sour Cherry
Buddleia davidii Franch.      Butterfly Bush Fragaria X ananassa       Strawberry Ranunculus acris L.      Tall Buttercup
Buddleia globosa Hope.      Butterfly Bush Gaillardia X grandiflora Hort.     Wirral Flame Blanket Flower Ranunculus auricomus      
Bunias orientalis L.      Turkish Rocket Galium aparine L.      Ranunculus repens      
Calceolaria sp. L.      Slipperwort Goniolimon speciosum Boiss.      Statice Speciosa Ribes nigrum L.      Black Currant
Calendula officinalis L.      Pot Marigold Helenium autumnale L.      Sneezeweed Ribes sanguineum      
Callistephus chinensis Nees.      China Aster Helenium sp. L.      Sneezeweed Ribes sp. L.      Currant
Callistephus sp. Cass.      Helianthus annuus L.      Sunflower Ribes uva-crispa       English Gooseberry
Campanula rapunculoides L.      Rover Bellflower Helianthus decapetalus L.      Thin Leaf Sunflower Ribes uva-crispa       English Gooseberry
Campanula sp. L.      Bellflower Helianthus tuberosus L.      Jerusalem artichoke Rubus idaeus L.      Garden Raspberry
Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic.      Shepherd's Purse Heliopsis helianthoides Sweet.    scabra  Oxeye Rudbeckia fulgida Perdue    speciosa 
Centaurea jacea L.      Brown Knapweed Hepatica americana/nobilis Ker-Gawl./Gars.      Liverleaf Rudbeckia laciniata L.     
Centaurea montana L.      Mountain Bluet Heuchera sanguinea Engelm      Coralbells Rudbeckia nitida      
Cerastium vulgatum       Mouseear Chickweed Heuchera sp. L.      Alumroot Rudbeckia sp. L.      Coneflower
Chamaemelum nobile All.      Chamomile Impatiens balfourii Hook. f.      Rumex sp. L.      Dock
Chelidonium majus L.      Celandine Incarvillea delavayi       Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.      African-Violet
Chenopodium album L.      Lamb's-Quarters Incarvillea sp.       Saintpaulia sp. H. Wendl.      African Violet
Chrysanthemum balsamita L.      Costmary Iris sp. L.      Flag Salix reticulata      
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium Vis.      Pyrethrum Isatis tinctoria L.      Salvia farinacea      
Chrysanthemum coccineum Willd.      Pyrethrum Knautia arvensis T. Coult.      Blue Buttons Salvia officinalis L.      Sage
Chrysanthemum indicum L.      Lactuca sativa L.      Lettuce Salvia pratensis L.     Alba Meadow Clary
Chrysanthemum koreanum Hort.      Lamium album L.      Dead Nettle Salvia X sylvestris      
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.      Marguerite Lamium purpureum       Red Dead-nettle Sambucus racemosa      
Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond.      Max Daisy Lavandula angustifolia Jord. ex Billot    angustifolia  English Lavender Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb.      Strawberryn Geranium
Chrysanthemum parthenium Bernh.      Feverfew Lilium henryi Bak.      Scabiosa caucasica      Clive Greaves
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Bill Speat Chrysanthemum Lilium pumilum Delile      Coral Lily Scabiosa columbaria      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Pride Chrysanthemum Lilium regale E. H. Wils.      Regal Lily Scabiosa lucida Vill.      Pincushion Flower
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Pennine Snow Chrysanthemum Lilium sp. L.      Lily Sedum maximum      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     New Princess Chrysanthemum Limonium latifolium O. Kuntze      Sea Lavender Senecio cruentus      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Lucerne Chrysanthemum Limonium vulgare Mill.      Senecio sp.       Cineraria
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Greenwich Chrysanthemum Liriope sp.       Lily Turf Senecio vulgaris       Groundsel
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Evelyn Bush Chrysanthemum Lupinus luteus L.      Yellow Lupine Silene schafta      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Evelyn Bush Chrysanthemum Lupinus sp. L.      Lupine Sinningia sp.      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Covent Garden Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Falcon Alfalfa Sinningia speciosa Benth. & Hook.      Gloxinia
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Bill Speat Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Lahontan Alfalfa Solanum lycopersicum L.      Tomato
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Orange Beauty Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Ranger Alfalfa Solanum nigrum L.      Morelle
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Amy Shoesmith Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.      Alfalfa Solidago rupestris      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Orange Peach Blossom Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Caliverde 65 Alfalfa Sonchus arvensis      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Delightful Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Cougar Alfalfa Sonchus oleraceus L.      Annual Sowthistle
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Orange Peach Blossom Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     FSRC Alfalfa Spilanthes acmella      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Delightful Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Moapa 69 Alfalfa Stachys sylvatica      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Orange Peach Blossom Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     Vernema Alfalfa Stellaria media Cyr.      Chickweed
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Amy Shoesmith Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.     W2S2 Alfalfa Taraxacum officinale Weber      Dandelion
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Bill Walters Chrysanthemum Medicago sativa L.      Alfalfa Trifolium pratense L.      Red Clover
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Pennine Snow Chrysanthemum Mentha X piperita       Urtica dioica L.      Stinging Nettle
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Bill Walters Chrysanthemum Mimulus guttatus       Urtica urens       Nettle
Chrysanthemum sp. L.      Chrysanthemum Mimulus sp. L.      Monkery Flower Valeriana montana L.      Valerian
Chrysanthemum sp. L.      Chrysanthemum Morina longifolia Wall.      Whorl-Flower Verbena rigida K. Spreng      Vervain
Chrysanthemum sp. L.      Chrysanthemum Nicotiana alata Link & Otto.      Jasmine Tobacco Veronica agrestis      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.      Chrysanthemum Nicotiana rustica L.      Wild Tobacco Veronica grandis      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.      Chrysanthemum Nicotiana tabacum L.      Tobacco Veronica incana      
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Pennine Snow Chrysanthemum Ocimum sp.       Veronica sp. L.      Speedwell
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Bill Walters Chrysanthemum Paeonia sp. L.      Peony Veronica spicata L.      Speedwell
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Lilac Nymph Chrysanthemum Papaver orientale L.      Oriental Poppy Zinnia elegans Jacq.      Zinnia
Chrysanthemum sp. L.     Lilac Nymph Chrysanthemum Papaver sp.       Zinnia haageana       Zinnia
Chrysanthemum X morifolium Ramat.      Florist's Mum Parthenocissus quinquefolia Planch.      Virginia Creeper
Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich    latilobum  Chrysanthemum Penstemon barbatus Nutt.      Beard Tongue

For a more extensive list of host species and their susceptibility, copy the name

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box

 

 


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Life Cycle:

Similar to A. fragariae.

Males required. After copulation, sperm are stored in the post-uterine sac an move forward into the anterior gonad for fertilization of eggs. One mating provides sufficient sperm to fertilize eggs produced over a period of 6 months (CIH, 1974).  

Overwinters in dormant buds and plant material.  

Cryptobiotic in dry tissues; viable after 3 years.



    

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Damage:

Can be a major pest of chrysanthemum. The nematode causes blotches and lesions from endoparasitic feeding in leaves; the lesions are limited by leaf veins resulting in an angular appearance.  

 

Leaf browning is due to oxidation and polymerization of leaf phenols.

Also incites cauliflower disease of strawberry which is an interaction with Rodococcus fascians (formerly Corynebacterium fascians).  Cauliflower disease is abnormal and excessive production of axillary buds.

 

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Management:


1.  Roguing and Destruction

Remove and burn infected plants and plant debris.

Fumigate soil or steam in affected areas.

Heat (dry or steam) tools, potting soil and containers at 85C for 30 min.

2.  Isolation

Separate suspect from healthy plants until they are confirmed to be noninfected.  Remove any tissue suspected of being infected.

3. Propagating Material.

Carefully select nematode-free plants or plant parts for propagation.

Hot water dips are effective for infested propagating stock.  Careful temperature control is necessary to kill the nematodes without injuring the plants.

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi - Chrysanthemum foliar nematode

Hot-water Temperatures and Submersion Times for Foliar Nematode for Selected Plants

 
Plant Type/Part Temp C Time

African violet

Small potted plants

 46.0a

 15 min

Anthurium

Bare-root seedlings

 46.6

 12 min

Begonias

Small potted plants

 47.0a

 3 min

Chrysanthemum

Dormant stock plants (stools)

 46.0

 5-15 min

Chrysanthemum

Dormant stock plants (stools)

 43.0

 20-30 min

Ferns

Small potted plants

 43.0a

 10-15 min

Lilies

Bulbs

 36.0

 6 hrs

Lilies

Bulbs

 44.0

 1 hr

Phlox

Dormant stock plants (stools)

 44.0

 1 hr

Strawberry

Dormant runner plants

 47.0

 15 min

Tree peony

Dormant roots

 47.0

 40 min

Violet

Dormant plants

 43.0

 30 min

aSubmerge the pots and plants in the hot water and then into clean, cool water.

Data from Edwards, 2000.

4.  Avoid Conducive Conditions

Excessive humidity, water on stems and leaves, and contact between plants allow spraad of the nematode among plants. Foliage should only be wet for short intervals.  A dry surface mulch on the potting medium or a ring of petroleum jelly around the base of stems will reduce migration of nematodes up plant stems.

5.  Alternate Hosts

Maintain outdoor and greenhouse plantings free of weeds.  They are potential hosts of foliar nematodes.

6.  Fallow

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi does not survive well in the absence of host plants.  Populations may be undetectable after several months in plant-free soil. 

7.  Host-plant Resistance

 Chrysanthemum cultivars 'Amy Shoesmith', 'Delightful', 'Orange Beauty', and 'Orange Peach Blossom' are relatively resistant, but not immune, to A. ritzemabosi. Nematodes invade and feed, but females produce few eggs and resulting juveniles usually fail to mature.

For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box

 

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References:

CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 32 (1974)

Edwards, D.I. 2000. Foliar Nematode disease of ornamentals.  Univ. Illinois Urbana-Champaign. RPD 1102.

Goodey, J. B., M. T. Franklin, and D. J. Hooper. 1965. T. Goodey's: The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued Under Their Hosts. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England. Third Edition
Gray, F. A., J. L. Williams, G. D. Griffin, and T. E. Wilson. 1994. Distribution in the western United States on alfalfa and cultivar reaction to mixed populations of Ditylenchus dipsaci and
Hesling, J. J. and H. R. Wallace. 1960. Susceptibility of varieties of Chrysanthemum to infestation by Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz). Nematologica 5:297-302.
Hesling, J. J., and H. R. Wallace. 1961. Observations on the susceptibility of chrysanthemum varieties infested at two different times with chrysanthemum eelworm, Aphelenchoides
Siddiqui, I. A., S. A. Sher and A. M. French. 1973. Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California. State of California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. 324p.
Unpublished records of nematodes identified in the quarantine and nursery cerification programs of the Nematology Laboratory, California Department of Food and Agriculture.
Wallace, H. R. 1961. Browning of Chrysanthemum leaves infested with Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Nematologica 6:7-16.  
Wallace, H. R. 1961. The nature of resistance in Chrysanthemum varieties to Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Nematologica 6:49-58.  

 

 

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For more information about nematodes, Go to Nemaplex Home Page.
Copyright 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 27, 2013.