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Europe, Australia, Canada, U.S. (especially Pacific Northwest), New Zealand, and
former Soviet Union.
C-rated pests in California.
37, 46, and 48% of orchard grass seed samples from the Willamette Valley of Oregon during 1996, 1997, and 2000, respectively, containing Anguina galls. The number of galls ranged from 1-24 per 25 g of grass seed (Alderman et al., 2003).
Annual and perennial rye grasses and bent grasses.
The following are listed as hosts in various literature sources:
|Agropyron repens Beauvois||Quack Grass||Calamagrostis canadensis Beauv.|
|Agrostis canina L.||Velvet Bent Grass||Festuca ovina L.||Sheeps Fescue|
|Agrostis capillaris L.||Bent Grass||Festuca sp. L.||Fescue|
|Agrostis castellana Hort. cedrorum||Bent Grass||Hordeum jubatum L.||Squirrel-Tail-Grass|
|Agrostis exarata||Bent Grass||Koeleria glauca|
|Agrostis gigantea Roth||Redtop Bent Grass||Koeleria gracilis|
|Agrostis polymorpha Huds.||Bent Grass||Lolium rigidum||Ryegrass|
|Agrostis stolonifera L.||Creeping Bent Grass||Phalaris arundinacea L.||Reed Canary-Grass|
|Agrostis stolonifera L. diffusa||Creeping Bent Grass||Phleum phleoides|
|Agrostis stolonifera L. palustris||Creeping Bent Grass||Phleum sp. L.||Timothy|
|Agrostis sylvatica Huds.||Bent Grass||Poa annua L.||Annual Blue Grass|
|Agrostis tenuis Sibth.||Colonial Bent Grass||Poa pratensis L.||Kentucky Blue-Grass|
|Apera spica-venti Beauv.||Poa pratensis L. alpigena||Kentucky Blue-Grass|
|Arctagrostis latifolia||Sporobolus brockmanii|
|Buchloe dactyloides Engelm.||Buffalo Grass||Trisetum flavescens|
For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility, copy the name
select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box
Similar to A. tritici, except that second stage hatches from egg.
One generation produced per year. Seed gall ruptures when mucoprotein takes up water and expels nematodes. This corresponds to favorable conditions for germination of host seeds.
Nematodes can remain viable in dry, cigar-shaped galls for up to 10 years.
In Australia, a bacterium formerly considered to be Corynebacterium rathayi attaches to nematode cuticle and is carried into seed gall. Corynebacterium rathayi is now reclassified as Clavibacter rathayi and the ryegrass toxicity organism is considered closely related to but may be a new species of Clavibacter (Riley, 1987).
The bacterium outcompetes the nematode for resources in seed gall, increases, and coats surface which becomes sticky and yellow; produces a neurotoxin that causes convulsion and mortality in grazing animals, i.e., "Staggers." - term used for the effect on sheep[ in Australia. The toxin is produced late in season as the gall matures ( Bird and Stynes, 1977).
Livestock poisoning is occasionally reported in the U.S., otherwise, majority of the damage caused by the nematode results in reduction of seed yield.
The relationship between nematode and bacterium is similar to that between A. tritici and Clavibacter tritici that causes Tundu disease of wheat.
In grasses, seed galls are difficult to detect as they are covered by lemmas and paleas. A small scarifier can be used to remove lemmas and paleas without damage to seeds or galls. That allows visual identification of galls (Alderman et al., 2003).
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name
select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box
Alderman SC, Bilsland DM, Griesbach JA, Milbrath GM, Schaad NW, Postnikova E. 2003. Use of a seed scarifier for detection and enumeration of galls of Anguina and Rathayibacter species in orchard grass seed. Plant Disease 87:320-323.
Bird, A.F., Stynes, B.A. 1977. The morphology of a Corynebacterium sp. parasitic on annual ryegrass Phytopathology 67:828-830.
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2, No. 20 (1973)
Riley, 1987; International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 35:153-159
Goodey, J. B., M. T. Franklin, and D. J. Hooper. 1965. T. Goodey's: The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued Under Their Hosts. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England. Third Edition
Siddiqui, I. A., S. A. Sher and A. M. French. 1973. Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California. State of California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. 324p.