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Anguina pacificae was synonymized with A. agropyri by Chizhov and Subbotin (1990) based on the identification af a nematode parasitizing Poa in Russia as A. agropyri (the documented host range of A. agropyri is in the grass genus Agropyron while that of A. pacificae is in the grass genus Poa). However, the A. pacificae is still being used in some recent literature, e.g. McClure et al., 2008.
Recent molecular analyses of A. pacificae from California and A. agropyri from Europe indicate differences in the ITS region and suggest that A. pacificae is distributed in Califonia and perhaps Russia while and A. agropyri is in Europe only (Sergei Subbotin, pers. comm.)..
|Anguina pacificae female|| Females
1.44-2.58 mm long. C-shaped when dead. Four lines in lateral field. Tail conical to a sharp point.
Stylet short (8.9-12.4 µm), esophageal glands do not appear to overlap intestine.
1.22-1.84 mm long.
Caudal alae and gubernaculum present.
Anguina pacificae J2
Anguina pacificae male
Anguina pacificae: male tail, caudal alae, spicules
Photograph: I. Cid del Prado
Anguina pacificae was found on grasses by Larry Costello (UC farm advisor) on Poa annua in 1978. It was described by Cid del Prado Vera and Maggenti in 1984.
It is reported from central coast golf courses in San Francisco, San Mateo and Monterey Counties.
As of 2001, golf course superintendents report that individual golf courses severely affected include Pebble Beach, Cypress Point, the Olympic Club, San Francisco Golf Club, and many other prominent courses.
|from McClure et al. (2008)|
Damaging on golf courses, considered a serious problem by greens managers.
|from McClure et al., 2008|
Endoparasite in stem galls
Poa annua L., bluegrass.
For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility, copy the name
select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box
The nematode forms green galls at stem bases. Galls may contain several adults and hundreds of juveniles and eggs. It does not attack the inflorescence (and presumably does not form seed galls, which might limit its spread).
Mature galls may be filled with bacteria, which appears as a white cream. That is reminiscent of the association between Anguina spp. and Clavibacter spp. in wheat and ryegrass.
Stem and leaf distortion, stem galls.
photograph: Ignacio Cid del Prado Vera
|Nematode development in galls at stem bases at indicated days after infection (DAI) - from McClure et al. (2008)|
I need to confirm my recollection of the following:
[I think Win Hart did some work. Also, I remember Viglierchio andYamashita, Frances Wu and maybe Steve Brown doing some sampling and nematicide (?Nemacur or Furadan) trials during which they also ran into a cyst nematode in the golf courses. [I may have invented the last factoid, but there may be some reference to it in those papers by Viglierchio and Yamashita in Revue de Nematologie.]]
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name
select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box
Cid del Prado Vera, I. and A.R. Maggenti. 1984. A new gall-forming species of Anguina Scopoli, 1777 (Nemata Anguinidae) on bluegrass, Poa annua L., from the coast of California. J. Nematol. 16:386-392.
Chizhov, V.N. & Subbotin, S.A. 1990. [Phytoparasitic nematodes of subfamily Anguininae (Nematoda, Tylenchida). Morphology, trophic specialization, taxonomic]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 69, 4: 15-26 (in Russian)