|seed gall nematodes||Classification||Hosts|
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Anguina (Scopoli, 1777)
Anguillulina (Anguina) (Scopoli, 1777)
Anguillulina (Gervais and Van Beneden, 1869)
Paranguina (Kir'yanova, 1955)
Nothanguina (Whitehead, 1959)
First recorded plant parasite (Needham, 1743) - second stage juveniles of A. tritici. Turbeville Needham, microscope, seed galls/smutty wheat, he thought he saw spontaneous generation.
Quote from Needham (Christie, p. 185) - letter to Royal Society published in Philosophical Transactions of that society:
Genus contains first 3 recorded plant parasites:
Current species list:
|Large nematode, up to 4mm, mature females swollen, obese.
Stylet is short.
Median bulb with or without valves.
Esophageal glands enlarged, generally with a slight overlap of the intestine.
Single ovary. Oocytes in many
rows arranged around a rachis (a strand of non-nucleated tissue to
which the germ cells appear to be attached). Columned uterus a long multinucleate tube, adapted to high
rate of egg production.
usually with flexures.
Gubernaculum almost always present.
Caudal alae long but not reaching tail tip.
[Ref: Fortuner and Maggenti, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):163-176 (1987).]
Occurs throughout the world; easily disseminated in seed.
Endoparasites; all species produce galls on plant leaves or seeds, especially on grasses.
For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility to this genus, copy the genus name
select Nemabase Genus Search and paste the name in the Genus box
Related to development host.
In seed gall forms, developing seed is converted to a nematode feeding site. Galls do not germinate as seeds.
Fortuner and Maggenti, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):163-176 (1987).