NEMATOLOGY 100 MID-TERM EXAM -- 1 1/2 HOURS OCTOBER 31, 1990

     1.  (20 points) You are provided with nematodes extracted from a lawn at 
       Orchard Park Student Housing. Place an adult female plant-parasitic 
       nematode of any species in the Order Tylenchida on a microscope slide.
       Heat-kill the nematode with gentle heat before applying a coverslip.
       Place the slide on the compound microscope.  Call the instructor for 
       examination of your nematode.  If there is more than one nematode
       present in the microscope field, indicate the specimen you wish to have 
       examined.  Do not ask or expect the instructor to make the selection.
       Only the nematode that you indicate initially will be considered.  You 
       should not have to leave your bench position.
       Grading:
         adult female plant-parasite (Tylenchida), good condition - 20 pts
         plant-parasite not in Tylenchida                            8 pts
         non-parasite, good condition -                              4 pts
         points off for damage, distortion, dry slides, etc.

   2.  (10 points) Describe the various sensory structures of tylenchid 
       nematodes and discuss their known or hypothesized function.  Indicate by 
       a diagram the position of each structure in or on the nematode body.

   3.  (20 points) Provide the following information for each of the nematodes 
       listed.  Answer by using the appropriate letter.
       (i) Order: a) Tylenchida,
                  b) Rhabditida,
                  c) Diplogasterida,
                  d) Dorylaimida
      (ii) Esophagus type : a) tylenchid - butting,
                            b) tylenchid - overlapping,
                            c) dorylaimid.
     (iii) Number of ovaries (female): a) one,
                                       b) two,
                                       c) more than two,
                                       d) none.
      (iv) Known vector of a plant virus? a) no,
                                          b) yes.
       (v) Adult female feeding habit: a) migratory ectoparasite,    
                                       b) migratory endoparasite,
                                       c) sedentary endoparasite.
      (vi) Provide a recognized common name.
           Belonolaimus longicaudatus
         
          (i)
         (ii)
        (iii)
         (iv)
          (v)
         (vi)
           Paratrichodorus minor
         
          (i)
         (ii)
        (iii)
         (iv)
          (v)
         (vi)
           Paratylenchus projectus
         
          (i)
         (ii)
        (iii)
         (iv)
          (v)
         (vi)
   4.  (15 points) Provide a generalized drawing of an adult female nematode 
       that is diovarial, amphidelphic, with a dorylaimid esophagus.
       Label the features of the esophageal and stoma regions and of the 
       reproductive and digestive tracts.
   5.  (10 points) Provide details of the method in describing an appropriate 
       procedure for extracting:
       a)  Radopholus similis from banana roots
       b)  Second, 3rd, 4th and adult stages of Tylenchorhynchus dubius from 
           soil.

   6.  (15 points) Briefly discuss the economic importance, distribution, host 
       range, injury to host, relation to host tissue, biology as influenced by
       physical environment, and control of the following:
       a)  Mesocriconema xenoplax 
       b)  Hemicycliophora arenaria 
       c)  Longidorus africanus
     
   7.  (10 points) Describe the geographic location and soil conditions that 
       favor the awl nematode, Dolichodorus heterocephalus.  What crops are 
       damaged?
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