FINAL96.HLP NEMATOLOGY 100 - FINAL EXAM Name: December 9, 1996 2 hours (50% of overall grade) 1. (10 points) Provide the following information for each of the nematodes listed. Answer by using the appropriate letter. (i) Order: a) Tylenchida, b) Rhabditida, c) Diplogasterida, d) Dorylaimida (ii) Esophagus type : a) tylenchid - butting, b) tylenchid - overlapping, c) dorylaimid. (iii) Known vector of a plant virus? a)no, b)yes. (iv) Adult female feeding habit: a) migratory ectoparasite, b) migratory endoparasite, c) sedentary endoparasite. (v) Provide a recognized common name. Helicotylenchus dihystera Pratylenchus penetrans (i) (i) (ii) (ii) (iii) (iii) (iv) (iv) (v) (v) Globodera rostochiensis Tylenchulus semipenetrans (i) (i) (ii) (ii) (iii) (iii) (iv) (iv) (v) (v) 2. (15 points) a) The characteristics listed below are features of the life-history and reproductive strategies of nematodes. Provide a definition and/or description of each. Provide an example of a species (or at least a genus) in which each occurs. Parthenogenesis Amphimixis Development through life stages without feeding Host-mediated diapause Resistance to desiccation b) What features would you design into a nematode to enhance its success in disturbed annual-crop agriculture. Discuss these characters in relation to the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) and the dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.). 3. (15 points) Match the following. (Some letters may be used several times, others may not be used at all. There may be several answers to each question). _________1. Animal parasite a) Caenorhabditis elegans _________2. Host-specific races b) Xiphinema index _________3. Predator c) Ditylenchus destructor _________4. Microbivorous d) Cephalobus spp _________5. Important on walnuts e) Seinura sp _________6. Virus transmission f) Radopholus similis _________7. A-rated pest (California) g) Trichinella spiralis _________8. Migratory endoparasite h) Globodera pallida _________9. Order Tylenchida i) Ascaris suum _________10.Male does not feed j) Hemicycliophora arenaria 4. (10 points) Ditylenchus destructor is an important pest of peanut production in South Africa. Discuss the biological and economic components of the problem. What approaches would you include in a research program to develop management strategies for this pest on peanut. 5. (10 points) Describe the proposed causality of bacterial canker of peach in California. 6. (10 points) a) Discuss the effectiveness and constraints of flooding for nematode management. Describe the principle of using trap crops for nematode management. What are the practical limitations and concerns? 7. (15 points) Indicate which of the following nematicides are: a) halogenated hydrocarbons b) fumigants c) nonfumigants d) organophosphates e) carbamates (note there may be more than one answer in each case) i) Telone ii) Temik 10G iii) Vapam iv) Furadan v) Methyl bromide 8. (15 points) Describe the geographic location and soil conditions that favor the migratory-endoparasitic nematodes, Hirschmanniella belli, H. oryzae, and H. spinicaudata. What crops are damaged?