FINAL96.HLP
                NEMATOLOGY 100   -  FINAL EXAM      Name:
   December 9, 1996        2 hours 
   (50% of overall grade)
   
   

   1.  (10 points)                                                             
       Provide the following information for each of the nematodes listed.
       Answer by using the appropriate letter.

       (i) Order: a) Tylenchida, b) Rhabditida, c) Diplogasterida,    
           d) Dorylaimida
      (ii) Esophagus type : a) tylenchid - butting, b) tylenchid - overlapping,
             c) dorylaimid.
     (iii) Known vector of a plant virus? a)no, b)yes.
      (iv) Adult female feeding habit: a) migratory ectoparasite,    
            b) migratory endoparasite, c) sedentary endoparasite.
       (v) Provide a recognized common name.

           Helicotylenchus dihystera       Pratylenchus penetrans

          (i)                             (i)
         (ii)                            (ii)
        (iii)                           (iii)
         (iv)                            (iv)
          (v)                             (v)


           Globodera rostochiensis         Tylenchulus semipenetrans

          (i)                             (i)
         (ii)                            (ii)
        (iii)                           (iii)
         (iv)                            (iv)
          (v)                             (v)




   2.  (15 points)
    a) The characteristics listed below are features of the life-history and 
       reproductive strategies of nematodes.
       Provide a definition and/or description of each.
       Provide an example of a species (or at least a genus) in which each
       occurs.


       Parthenogenesis


       Amphimixis


       Development through life stages without feeding


       Host-mediated diapause


       Resistance to desiccation


    b) What features would you design into a nematode to enhance its success
       in disturbed annual-crop agriculture.
       Discuss these characters in relation to the root knot nematode 
       (Meloidogyne sp.) and the dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.).



   3.  (15 points)                                                             
       Match the following. (Some letters may be used several times, others
       may not be used at all.  There may be several answers to each question).

       _________1. Animal parasite              a) Caenorhabditis elegans

       _________2. Host-specific races          b) Xiphinema index

       _________3. Predator                     c) Ditylenchus destructor

       _________4. Microbivorous                d) Cephalobus spp

       _________5. Important on walnuts         e) Seinura sp

       _________6. Virus transmission           f) Radopholus similis

       _________7. A-rated pest (California)    g) Trichinella spiralis

       _________8. Migratory endoparasite       h) Globodera pallida

       _________9. Order Tylenchida             i) Ascaris suum               

       _________10.Male does not feed           j) Hemicycliophora arenaria






   4.  (10 points)
       Ditylenchus destructor is an important pest of peanut production in South
       Africa.  
       Discuss the biological and economic components of the problem.
       What approaches would you include in a research program to develop 
       management strategies for this pest on peanut.


   5.  (10 points)                                                        
       Describe the proposed causality of bacterial canker of peach in 
       California.


   6.  (10 points)
    a) Discuss the effectiveness and constraints of flooding for 
       nematode management.
       Describe the principle of using trap crops for nematode management.
       What are the practical limitations and concerns?


   7.  (15 points)
       Indicate which of the following nematicides are:

       a)  halogenated hydrocarbons
       b)  fumigants
       c)  nonfumigants
       d)  organophosphates
       e)  carbamates
          (note there may be more than one answer in each case)

       i)  Telone

      ii)  Temik 10G

     iii)  Vapam
   
      iv)  Furadan

       v)  Methyl bromide



   8.  (15 points)                                                           
       Describe the geographic location and soil conditions that
       favor the migratory-endoparasitic nematodes, Hirschmanniella belli, H. 
       oryzae, and H. spinicaudata.             
       What crops are damaged?