December 14, 1988        2 hours

1.  (15 points)
    What factors will you consider in developing crop rotation for various 
    nematode groups?  Discuss the use of this approach for the genus 
    Pratylenchus and the genus Globodera.

2.  (10 points)
    Describe the various sensory structures of nematodes in the order Tylenchida
    and discuss their apparent function.

3.  (10 points)
    Compare development and characteristics of syncytia incited by Heterodera 
    and giant cells incited by Meloidogyne.

4.  (15 points)
    What features would you design into a nematode to enhance its success in
    disturbed annual cropping systems.
    Discuss these characteristics in relation to the root knot nematodes 
    (Meloidogyne spp) and the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp).

5.  (10 points)
    Briefly describe the modes of parasitism of the fungi that are 
    antagonistic to nematodes. Provide examples where possible.

6.  (15 points)
    Discuss the life cycle, mode of parasitism and control of the rice root 
    nematode, Hirschmanniella oryzae.

7.  (15 points)
    Describe the characteristics, life cycle and feeding habits of the pin 
    nematodes, Paratylenchus spp.

8.  (10 points)
    Based on your knowledge of nematode control, biology, distribution and host
    ranges, what control measures are available and practical for the following
    nematode diseases (short answers only):
    a)  Globodera rostochiensis on potatoes
    b)  Meloidogyne incognita on tomato
    c)  Ditylenchus destructor on potato
    d)  Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on chrysanthemum
    e)  Pratylenchus vulnus on roses