1. amphids always post-labial, variable shape, pore-like to elaborate. 2. deirids not seen. 3. phasmids generally absent. 4. hypodermal glands present (excretory?) uninucleate. 5. simple non-tubular excretory system when present. 6. three caudal glands commonly opening through a spinneret at the tail tip. 7. male generally has two testes. 8. caudal alae rare. 9. male with supplement glands in a single ventro-median row. 10. sensory papillae in cephalic region and along body. 11. generally five esophageal glands. 12. marine, freshwater, terrestrial.
Adenophorea (2 sub-classes)
Sub-class: Enoplia -
1. amphids not elaborate, oval, stirrup or pouch-like. 2. no body annuli. 3. cephalic sensory organs and somatic setae present or absent. 4. cylindrical esophagus, sometimes larger posteriorly. 5. five or more esophageal glands. Marenoplica: a) marine inhabitants. b) single excretory cell. c) setae on head behind lip region. d) male with elaborate supplements. e) esophageal glands open anterior to nerve ring, three open into stoma. Orders: 1. Enoplida - marine and brackish water, feed on diatoms, algae etc. Terrenoplica: a) soil and rarely freshwater inhabitants. b) excretory cell not seen, have hypodermal glands except in Trichodoridae. c) no head setae. d) male with delicate supplements. e) esophageal glands open posterior to nerve ring,opening difficult to see. 2. Isolaimida - long and slender, soil inhabitants. 3. Mononchida - strong, cuticularized stoma, predaceous and cannibalistic. Soil and freshwater, no marine. 4. Dorylaimida - movable mural tooth or hollow spear. All soil or freshwater inhabitants, no marine. Longidoridae are plant parasites and vectors of plant viruses. 5. Triplonchida - movable tooth. Trichodoridae are plant parasites and vectors of plant viruses 6. Stichosomida - multiple glandular esophagus - stichosome- vertebrate parasites, e.g., Trichinella spiralis (trichinosis) Trichuris (whip worm), invertebrate parasites, e.g., Mermis, Romanomermis.
Sub-class: Chromadoria -
1. amphids elaborate, spiral or circular. 2. often have body annuli. 3. stoma may be toothed. 4. no parasitic forms, feed on algae, bacteria, diatoms. 5. freshwater and marine. 6. three esophageal glands. Orders: 1. Araeolaimida - simple spiral or "shepherd's crook" amphids, marine or brackish; e.g., Plectus on moss. Feeding habits unknown. 2. Chromadorida - spiral amphids - marine, freshwater, soil. Feeding habits unknown. 3. Desmoscolecida - Heavily ornamented and annulated cuticle. Typically marine, some freshwater and soil. Somatic setae along body. 4. Desmodorida - amphids loops and spirals. Mainly marine, some in brackish and freshwater. Setae along body. Feeding unknown. 5. Monhysterida - amphids spiral to circular. Funnel-shaped stoma, some have protrusible teeth. Generally single gonad. Marine, brackish, fresh, soil. Food unknown.
** Note how little is known about non-parasites. **
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