Hoplolaimus pararobustus




Rev 12/27/2013

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     Hoplolaimus pararobustus (Schuurmans Stekhoven & Teunissen, 1938) Sher, 1963  
      Tylenchorhynchus pararobustus (Sch. Stek. & Teun., 1938)
      Rotylenchus pararobustus (Sch. Stek. & Teun., 1938) Filipjev & Sch. Stek., 1941
      Gottholdsteineria pararobustus (Sch. Stek. & Teun., 1938) Andrássy, 1958 
      Hoplolaimus angustalatus Whitehead, 1959
      Hoplolaimus kittenbergeri Andrássy, 1961
      Hoplolaimus proporicus Goodey, 1957
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Morphology and Anatomy:

Length, female: 1.38 mm average; length, male: 1.04-1.19 mm.

Female: Body cylindrical, straight to slightly arcuate ventrally when relaxed by gradual heating.

Cuticle annules distinct, about 2 µm wide; subcuticular annules about 1 µm wide.  

Lip region hemispherical, set-off from body by a constriction, with a terminal disc and usually 4 distinct annules; sometimes with 3 annules on one side and 4 on the other; as many as 6 annules may be present.  Longitudinal striae on lip annules variable in number, on basal annule 7 to 25 striae may be seen in face views. 

Labial framework hexaradiate, heavily sclerotized; lateral sectors smaller than submeridians.  

Lateral fields reduced and variable, represented by interruption of body annules or by a single incisure towards the extremities or along the entire body length; 2 to 3 incomplete incisures are sometimes seen, especially in badly fixed specimens.  

Phasmids as enlarged scutella, about 5 µm in diameter, anterior one at 24 to 52% and posterior one at 58 to 89% of body length from anterior end; anterior one may be on right side and posterior one on the left, or vice versa.  

Excretory pore distinct, usually opposite the median esophageal bulb, but may be anterior or posterior to it, yet always anterior to the hemizonid which is about 2 body annules long.  

Stylet well developed, about 38 to 49 µm long, composed of two almost equal parts; basal knobs tulip-shaped, with 2 or more anterior projections or "teeth."  

Orifice of dorsal esophageal gland behind spear base. 

Esophagus typical of the genus;.

Median bulb rounded, very muscular and with a distinct valve.

Three uni-nucleate esophageal glands extending dorsally or dorso-ventrally over the intestine, dorsal gland and its nucleus anteriormost; isthmus enveloped by nerve ring, connected to intestine through an indistinct junction.  

Intestine with refractive spherical granules, overlaps rectum. 

Vulva a transverse slit; epiptygma usually single, anterior or posterior; vagina at right angles to body axis. 

Gonads paired, symmetrical, opposed, may lie on right or left side of intestine.  

Spermathecae spherical, axial, with sperms.  

Ovaries with oocytes in tandem.  

Tail short, rounded, usually hemispherical and with 7 to 15 annules.

Male: Common.  

Body ventrally arcuate.  

Lip region rounded, higher than in female, with 3 to 5 (usually 4) annules.  

Excretory pore near metacorpus, 8-23 annules in front of hemizonid.  

Stylet, esophagus, lateral field, and phasmids as in female. 

Testis single, anteriorly outstretched.  

Spicules ventrally arcuate, slightly cephalated, with large flanges in distal half.  

Gubernaculum trough-like, protrusible through cloaca, with titillae on distal end.  

Bursa large, with crenate margins, originating near level of retracted spicule head and enclosing tail, which is conoid.

[Ref: CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 33 (1974)]



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Economic Importance:



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Some ectoparasitic feeding on banana, but mainly endoparasitic in cortex.

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Roots of banana, sugarcane, coffee, tea, guava, mango, rice, yam, oil palm, and grasses.

For an extensive list of host plant species and their susceptibility, copy the name

Hoplolaimus pararobustus

select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box



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Life Cycle:

Aside from endoparasitic feeding, further details are not known.

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Feeding causes dark lesions on banana roots; necrotic cortical tissue often found around heads of many nematodes.

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No experimental details available, but see control of Hoplolaimus galeatus.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name

Hoplolaimus pararobustus

select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box


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CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 33 (1974)

H. Ferris

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 27, 2013.