|Morphology and Anatomy||Life Cycle|
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|Nematode is 2.0-3.0mm long; has long stylet. B. gracilis is distinguished from B. longicaudatus by shorter tail, longer spear, and greater relative width.|
South-central and eastern U.S. from Virginia south to Florida (limited distribution in Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama).
Migratory ectoparasite at root tip and along sides. Long stylet penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip damage, resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches.
Wide host range: peanut, corn, cotton, tomato, squash, grasses
Note: tobacco is a non-host.
For a more extensive list of host species and their susceptibility, copy the name
select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box
Nematode prefers light, sandy soils.
Damage caused by this nematode results mainly from devitalized
and the usual symptoms are plant wilting, stubby and/or coarse roots;
necrosis and discoloration occur less frequently. Standifier (1959)
reported B. gracilis produced lesions on bean roots which extended into
the stele, destroying xylem and phloem.
Nematode also causes plants to be more susceptible to damage
1. Rotation - additional work needed in this area - rotation to tobacco, coupled with clean cultivation, reduces population of B. gracilis.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name
select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box
2. Soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) was effective. Holdeman (year?) reported EDB fumigants was more effective than 1,3-D (then D-D mixture) for controlling sting nematode in South Carolina.