Belonolaimus gracilis




Rev 12/27/13

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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Distribution Management
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 	Belonolaimus gracilis
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Morphology and Anatomy:

  Nematode is 2.0-3.0mm long; has long stylet. B. gracilis is distinguished from B. longicaudatus by shorter tail, longer spear, and greater relative width.
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Economic Importance:

      South-central and eastern U.S. from Virginia south to Florida (limited 
      distribution in Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama).
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      Migratory ectoparasite at root tip and along sides.  Long stylet 
      penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip damage, 
      resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches.  
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Wide host range: peanut, corn, cotton, tomato, squash, grasses on turf.
Note: tobacco is a non-host.


For a more extensive list of host species and their susceptibility, copy the name

Belonolaimus gracilis

select Nemabase and paste the name in the Genus and species box



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Life Cycle:

Nematode prefers light, sandy soils.

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Damage caused by this nematode results mainly from devitalized root tips,
and the usual symptoms are plant wilting, stubby and/or coarse roots;
necrosis and discoloration occur less frequently. Standifier (1959)
reported B. gracilis produced lesions on bean roots which extended into
the stele, destroying xylem and phloem.

Nematode also causes plants to be more susceptible to damage from Fusarium.

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1. Rotation - additional work needed in this area - rotation to tobacco, coupled with clean cultivation, reduces population of B. gracilis.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For a list of plant species or cultivars (if any) reported to be immune or to have some level of resistance to this nematode species, copy the name

Belonolaimus gracilis

select Nemabase Resistance Search and paste the name in the Genus and species box

2. Soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) was effective. Holdeman (year?) reported EDB fumigants was more effective than 1,3-D (then D-D mixture) for controlling sting nematode in South Carolina.

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Copyright 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 27, 2013.